Friday, September 28, 2007

Hormone Therapy Has No Consequence On Women's Memory

Hormone Therapy Has No Consequence On Women's Memory

Hormone therapy interpreted inch the world-class few years after menopause does not appear to affect a woman's memory, but may lead to increased sexual interest, according to a study published in the September 25, 2007, offspring of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

The bailiwick, the largest to see examining the effects of hormone therapy IN early post-menopausal women, tangled 180 women between the ages of 45 and 55 who had finished their final menstrual cycle in the past unitary to three years. The women were randomly tending placebo or hormone therapy consisting of day-after-day estrogen and progesterone for four months. The women also underwent tests on memory, attention, cognitive run, worked up condition, sexuality, and sleep.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

10% Of Women Infected With Human PapillomaVirus

A new study by the Health protection Agency estimates at least 10% of untried women in England have been infected with unrivalled or more strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) by the historic period of 16. The study will be discussed on the net twenty-four hour period of the Health Protection Agency annual conference inward Warwick.

The examine, the 1st of its tolerant in England , investigated the proportion of women of age 10-29 old who had antibodies indicating they had been septic with HPV. Researchers tried and true blood samples from 1483 girls and women for types of HPV that terminate do genital warts and cervical Crab. Results evidence that from the age of 14, the risk of HPV infection increases precipitously.

Or So HPV infections sack do cervical cancers in women and genital warts in both women and men, although about infections with HPV cause no symptoms and exculpated on their own.

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Pathophysiology Of Erectile Dysfunction

Given the complexity of the system, it is not surprising that a wide variety of diverse disorders may result in erectile dysfunction. Often, the cause is multifactorial, but vasculogenic causes are the most commonly implicated.

Because the development and maintenance of a rigid erection depend on achieving a high intracavernosal pressure, it is not surprising that disorders affecting the peripheral arterial blood flow are strongly associated with erectile dysfunction.

The most common cause is atheroma involving either the common or internal iliac arteries or their more distal branches. The risk factors for this are similar to those for coronary artery disease (including smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity).

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Risk Factors For Erectile Dysfunction

Risk Factors For Erectile Dysfunction

Risk factors for organic erectile dysfunction mainly stem from the fact that the erectile mechanism is a vasodilatory response dependent on smooth muscle function under neurogenic control. Aging, which has the strongest association with erectile dysfunction, probably exerts its effects mainly through impaired vasodilatory and venoocclusive mechanisms.

Atheroma of the internal iliac arteries and their pudendal branches may be one factor, but age-related degeneration of intracorporeal smooth muscle mechanisms is probably more important.

Venous leakage, another age-related phenomenon, may in itself be a manifestation of deterioration of intracorporeal smooth muscle function.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

What Everyone Should Know about Generic Drugs

NAPS — an estimated half of all prescriptions in the United States are filled with generic drugs. These products carry all the medicinal qualities (and side effects) of their brand-name counterparts, but generics tend to have one additional benefit: lower cost.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA], a generic drug is a copy that is identical to a brand-name drug in dosage, refuge, strength, how it is interpreted, quality, performance and intended manipulation. New drugs, like other new products, are developed under patent protection. The patent protects the investment—including research, development, marketing and promotion—by giving the company the sole right to sell the drug while the patent is in effect. When patents or other periods of exclusivity on brand-name drugs are near expiry, manufacturers can apply to the FDA to sell generic versions.

Penile Implants for Erectile Dysfunction

Penile Implants for Erectile Dysfunction

Penile implants were introduced into the marketplace over 30 years ago with the marketing of the three piece inflatable and the semi rigid rod almost simultaneously. Prior to that time, there was little interest in erectile dysfunction, little was known of the causes and epidemiology, and the treatments which were prescribed were in most cases unsuccessful. The rudimentary implants used prior to that time simply acted as inadequate splints, attempting to maintain the penis in a rigid state.

The French surgeon Ambroise Pare suggested an "artificial penis" made of wooden pipe or tube for patients after traumatic penile amputation in order to facilitate a proper micturition in the standing position. Although not intended for sexual activities, one might call this device a 16th century "penile prosthesis". As per definition a prosthesis replaced the whole organ or part of the body. On the other hand on should always confine to the term "penile implant" when referring to the modern devices discussed.

Monday, September 17, 2007

Canada's Drug Price Paradox 2007

Canadians pay much more than Americans for generic drugs because government policies in Canada distort the market for prescription medicines. Canadian government policies insulate generic drug companies and pharmacy retailers from normal market forces that would put downward pressure on prices for generic drugs.

This study compares prices for generic and brand-name drugs in Canada and the United States for the year 2006. Differences between the economics and public policy of the two countries theoretically explain the observed variation in prices for identical drugs. This study estimates the effect on total retail-drug expenditures from price distortions caused by Canadian public policies.

Canadian data

The main Canadian data set used for this study included three lists of drug products.

  1. The 100 most commonly prescribed brand-name drug products in Canada in 2006, ranked by the number of prescriptions dispensed. This sample represents 69% of the total number of brand-name prescriptions dispensed in the Canadian market in 2006.
  2. The 100 most commonly prescribed generic drug products in Canada in 2006, ranked by the number of prescriptions dispensed. This sample represents 57% of the total number of generic prescriptions dispensed in the Canadian market in 2006.
  3. All manufacturers in the Canadian generic market for each of the 100 most commonly prescribed generic drug products in 2006 and their associated market shares defined by the number of prescriptions dispensed for each product in 2006.

Friday, September 14, 2007

Effect Of Premature Menopause On Sexuality

Premature menopause, that is, menopause – spontaneous or iatrogenic – occurring at or before the age of 40 years, affects sexual identity, sexual function and sexual relationships. The woman's health, wellbeing and achievement of life's goals may be variably impaired.

Factors modulating the individual's sexual outcome after premature menopause include: etiological heterogeneity of premature menopause and associated medical and sexual comorbidities; psychosexual vulnerability to premature menopause and associated infertility in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers; impact of premature menopause on women's sexual identity, sexual function – particularly the biological basis of desire, arousal, orgasm and vaginal receptivity – and sexual relationships; partner-related factors; fertility issues; and preventive/therapeutic measures.

Hormone therapy is indicated but long-term safety data are lacking. An interdisciplinary medical and psychosexual approach comprises appropriate counseling, fertility protection, when
feasible, individualized hormone therapy and specific psychosexual treatment(s). Further research on fertility protection and the safety of long-term hormone therapy after premature menopause is needed.

Monday, September 10, 2007

Epidemiology of Erectile Dysfunction

Epidemiology of Erectile Dysfunction

Ever since the ground-breaking work of Kinsey, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction has been a subject of debate. Although it is certain that many millions of men are affected by the condition, there is a surprising dearth of high-quality epidemiological data with which to quantify accurately the extent of the problem. A figure of one man in ten has often been quoted as an estimate of the prevalence of erectile dysfunction, but the frequency and severity of the disorder vary markedly with age. Erectile dysfunction is uncommon in young men (with the exception of intermittent psychogenic problems), becomes more common in middle age, and is highly prevalent in men more than 60 years of age. Thus, to some extent, erectile dysfunction is a natural expression of aging, but one that men are increasingly less willing to accept without seeking treatment. As the world’s population ages over the next few decades (Figure 1), the number of men who will suffer erectile dysfunction seems certain to rise.

Epidemiology of Erectile Dysfunction, Figure 1

Figure 1. The projected world population pyramid for 2002 (green) and 2025 (white) demonstrating how many more older people will be around to be affected by erectile dysfunction.

Saturday, September 8, 2007

The Male Genital System Illustrated

(Items in bold correspond to the drawing)

The Male Genital System Illustrated

The bladder is emptied by way of the urethra, a tube passing through the prostate gland. The main function of the prostate is to supply fluid for sperm that has been collected in the seminal vesicles. Ejaculation is when the seminal vesicles and prostate empty.

The seminal vesicles are supplied by the vas deferens from the epididymis, a tightly coiled, tube next to the testicle that provides for the storage, transmission, and maturation of sperm.

Before ejaculation, the Cowper's glands secrete an alkaline fluid that neutralizes any urine that may be left in the urethra. The fluid also has a lubricating quality. Because these glands are often spared in a prostatectomy, they may continue to function, even though there is no ejaculate.

Friday, September 7, 2007

Online Sexuality And Online Sexual Problems: Skating On Thin Ice

Online Sexuality And Online Sexual Problems

Observations about obsessional love and compulsive sexual behaviors are not new. Since human beings began to express themselves on granite walls and clay scrolls, there has been a fascination with sexuality. Secular and religious literature, oral history, art and music were all replete with both overt and oblique references to the power sex holds. About 4,000 years ago, the Sumarians wrote about the sexual conquests of the warrior Gilgamesh in The Epic of Gilgamesh which describes his behavior and reputation: "His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior's daughter nor the wife of the nobleman." Forty centuries later the Internet burst upon the world and has given us yet another outlet for the expression of sexuality. Its potential seems infinite, frightening and wondrous all at the same time.

In May 1997, theWall Street Journal ran a story about a stripper, Danni Ashe, who was able to use her business skills to market sexually explicit images of herself and other models on the Internet. Lane (2001) reports how the journalist, Thomas E. Weber described how Ashe's site, Danni's Hard Drive, was "bring [ing] in so much revenue that she has given up the stage and nude photo shoots... Now the pay site boasts 17,000 members, putting Ms. Ashe on pace for more than $2 million in revenue [in 1997]... " (Lane, 2001, p. XIII).

Thursday, September 6, 2007

Mechanisms Of Erection

Intracavernosal smooth muscle tone is by far the most important determinant of intracavernosal blood flow. Approximately half of the cavernosal volume is composed of smooth muscle, with the remainder consisting of either lacunar spaces or collagen. Collagen fibers are largely responsible for the passive mechanical properties of cavernosal tissue. In contrast, active contraction of cavernosal smooth muscle is dependent upon a number of factors, including the level of agonists (neurotransmitters, hormones and endothelium-derived factors), adequate expression of receptors, integrity of transduction mechanisms, calcium homeostasis, interaction of contractile proteins, and intimate intracellular communication between smooth muscle cells (gap junctions).

Cavernosal smooth muscle cells contain abundant amounts of the contractile proteins, actin and myosin. Following phosphorylation of myosin by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), attachments (crossbridges) form between the light chains of these two proteins and these attachments provide the mechanism for contractile tone of smooth muscle. The expenditure of energy for maintaining this state of tone is almost zero, but there is an absolute requirement for a high concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium.

Wednesday, September 5, 2007

How to Use Viagra and Other Erection Drugs

The world of erection impairment changed dramatically on March 27, 1998—the day the Food and Dose Administration approved the little blasphemous pill. Viagra is used for treatment of erection impairment, at present medically called erectile dysfunction (ED). Viagra was not the outset drug treatment for erection impairment (see Yohimbine below), but it was the one that captured the public’s imagination. Viagra took the U.S.—and the world—by storm. During its number 1 month of availability, American doctors wrote more than 300,000 prescriptions, making Viagra the fastest-selling new drug in history. Inside six months, repeat prescriptions were being written at the rate of 100,000 per calendar month. Today, Viagra is one of the most successful drugs always marketed. More than 10 meg men have taken more than 125 million tablets. Annual gross sales approach $2 billion. And with millions of male Baby Boomers in their 50s, the future of the little blue pill—and other erection medications—looks bright.

1. Step One

Be aware the erection medication is not the answer to every man’s erection problem, though erection medication certainly has a place in treatment of ED. Many erection difficulties are caused by sexual anxiety, and resolve when men learn more about sexual activity, relax about it, and espouse a less penis-centered, holistic and sensual approach to lovemaking. Other erection difficulties are caused by medical problems and resolve when the illnesses are treated. Many erection problems are caused by drugs (notably alcohol and cigarettes) and drug side effects and can be helped by cutting back on alcohol, quitting smoke, or tinkering with prescriptions.

2. Step Two

Know how erection medications work. Currently there are four prescription drugs available for erection problems: Sildenafil, Levitra, Cialis and Yohimbine. They all essentially work the same way. Sexual arousal stimulates release of a compound, nitric oxide (NO), in the penis. Nitrous oxide, in turn, triggers synthesis of cGMP, which relaxes the penis’ smooth muscle tissue, and allows extra blood to flow into the organ’s spongy central erectile tissues. Erection drugs heighten this smooth muscle relaxation, prod greater blood flow into the penis.

Sunday, September 2, 2007

When To Call a Doctor

Seek care immediately if you use medication to treat an erection problem (erectile dysfunction) and the erection lasts longer than 4 hours.

Do not use any form of nitroglycerin if you have chest pain and have taken Viagra, Levitra, or Cialis in the past 24 hours.

Call a health professional if erection problems occur with:

  • Any type of injury to the back, legs, buttocks, groin, penis, or testicles.
  • A loss of pubic or armpit hair and an enlargement of the breasts.